John Henry Twachtman 1853 - 1902 American American Impressionism, Tonalism Painters
A founding member of the Ten American Painters—a group of American Impressionists who, in late 1897, sought to distance themselves from the conservative and commercial artistic currents of their time—John Henry Twachtman was among the more progressive artists of the late nineteenth century. The son of German immigrants who had settled in Cincinnati, Twachtman was trained in the realist methods of the old masters at the Munich Royal Academy, where he studied from late 1875 to early 1877. His professional career commenced on his return to New York in 1877; after setting up a studio on Washington Square, where he painted realist scenes of the city, he participated in the inaugural exhibition of the Society of American Artists (founded in 1877 as a counterfoil to the conservative National Academy of Design). At about the same time, Twachtman joined the Tile Club. In 1883, intent on expanding his artistic horizons, Twachtman enrolled in the Académie Julian, in Paris, where he studied painting under Gustave Boulanger and Jules-Joseph Lefebvre. The experience led to a tempering of Twachtman’s realist methods and a cultivation of more atmospheric effects of light and color. Back in the United States, Twachtman established a boarding school for artists at Cos Cob, Connecticut; he also taught at the Art Students League and Cooper Union. He is widely appreciated today for his impressionistic canvases dating from the late 1890s, many painted toward the end of his life, when he made his home in Greenwich, Connecticut, tending his flower gardens after the example of Monet at Giverny.
American Impressionist John Twachtman was a member of the Tile Club (1877-1887), a group of painters that traveled to Long Island's East End, among other locales, to paint en plein air.